NTRU-type Multi-Key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (MKFHE), prime cyclotomic rings, Low Bit Discarded (LBD), homomorphic multiplication decryption structure
The Multi-Key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (MKFHE) based on the NTRU cryptosystem is an important alternative to the post-quantum cryptography due to its simple scheme form, high efficiency, and fewer ciphertexts and keys. In 2012, López-Alt et al. proposed the first NTRU-type MKFHE scheme, the LTV12 scheme, using the key-switching and modulus-reduction techniques, whose security relies on two assumptions: the Ring Learning With Error (RLWE) assumption and the Decisional Small Polynomial Ratio (DSPR) assumption. However, the LTV12 and subsequent NTRU-type schemes are restricted to the family of power-of-2 cyclotomic rings, which may affect the security in the case of subfield attacks. Moreover, the key-switching technique of the LTV12 scheme requires a circular application of evaluation keys, which causes rapid growth of the error and thus affects the circuit depth. In this paper, an NTRU-type MKFHE scheme over prime cyclotomic rings without key-switching is proposed, which has the potential to resist the subfield attack and decrease the error exponentially during the homomorphic evaluating process. First, based on the RLWE and DSPR assumptions over the prime cyclotomic rings, a detailed analysis of the factors affecting the error during the homomorphic evaluations in the LTV12 scheme is provided. Next, a Low Bit Discarded & Dimension Expansion of Ciphertexts (LBD&DEC) technique is proposed, and the inherent homomorphic multiplication decryption structure of the NTRU is proposed, which can eliminate the key-switching operation in the LTV12 scheme. Finally, a leveled NTRU-type MKFHE scheme is developed using the LBD&DEC and modulus-reduction techniques. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme compared to the LTV12 scheme can decrease the magnitude of the error exponentially and minimize the dimension of ciphertexts.
Tsinghua University Press
Xiaoliang Che, Tanping Zhou, Ningbo Li et al. Modified Multi-Key Fully Homomorphic Encryption Based on NTRU Cryptosystem without Key-Switching. Tsinghua Science and Technology 2020, 25(05): 564-578.