intermediate spoofing, dragging code phase strategy, low cost countermeasures, code and carrier phase consistency
Intermediate spoofing can impact most off-the-shelf Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, therefore low cost detection of such spoofing is very important to protect the reliability of the GNSS receivers used in critical safety and financial applications. This paper presents two strategies to analyze attacks by intermediate spoofing attackers to identify the weaknesses of such attacks. The analyses lead to a code and carrier phase consistency detection method with simulation results showing that this method can indicate the receiver when spoofing has occurred. The method can be used by most receivers, is inexpensive, and requires only a small software upgrade.
Tsinghua University Press
Yang Gao, Hong Li, Mingquan Lu et al. Intermediate Spoofing Strategies and Countermeasures. Tsinghua Science and Technology 2013, 18(6): 599-605.