Remarkable anodic performance of lead titanate 1D nanostructures via in-situ irreversible formation of abundant Ti3+ as conduction pathways
PbTiO3 nanowires, lithium ion anode materials, amorphous Ti3+-rich matrix, composite structure
PX-phase PbTiO3 (PT) nanowires with open channels running along the length direction have been investigated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. This material shows a stabilized reversible specific capacity of about 410 mAh·g–1 up to 200 cycles with a charge/discharge voltage plateau of around 0.3–0.65 V. In addition, it exhibits superior high-rate performance, with 90% and 77% capacity retention observed at 1 and 2 A·g–1, respectively. At a very high current rate of 10 A·g–1, a specific capacity of over 170 mAh·g–1 is retained up to 100 cycles, significantly outperforming the rate capability reported for Pb and Pb oxides. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses along with the cyclic voltammogram results reveal that the PX-phase PT nanowires undergo irreversible structural amorphization and reduction reactions during the initial cycle, which allow them to transform into a composite structure composed of 2–5 nm Pb nanoparticles uniformly dispersed in the 1D amorphous Li2O·TiO2·LiTiO2 matrix. In this composite structure, the presence of abundant amounts of Ti3+ in both the charged and discharged states enhances the electrical conductance of the system, whereas the presence of ultrafine Pb nanoparticles imparts high reversible capacity. The structurally stable TiO2-based amorphous matrix can also considerably buffer the volume variation during the charge/discharge process, thereby facilitating extremely stable cycling performance. This compound combines the high specific capacity of Pb-based materials and the good rate capability of Ti3+-based wiring. Our results might furnish a possible route for achieving superior cycling and rate performance and contribute towards the search for next-generation anode materials.
Tsinghua University Press
Zhiyong Shi,Jin Wang,Wenxi Wang,Yixiang Zhang,Bo Li,Zhouguang Lu,Yadong Li, Remarkable anodic performance of lead titanate 1D nanostructures via in-situ irreversible formation of abundant Ti3+ as conduction pathways. NanoRes.2016, 9(2): 353–362