Upconversion nano-photosensitizer targeting into mitochondria for cancer apoptosis induction and cyt c fluorescence monitoring
mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS), upconversion-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), cytochrome c (cyt c), mitochondrial apoptosis
ABSTRACT Disruption of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS) plays a major role in cancer cell apoptosis. Here, we designed a core/shell-structured mitochondriatargeting upconversion-based nano-photosensitizer (TPP-UC(PS)) with a lanthanidedoped upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP) core coated by a photosensitizer (PS)-incorporated dense silica shell. Following irradiation with external nearinfrared laser (NIR), TPP-UC(PS) in mitochondria caused serious mitochondrial matrix swelling for the activated upconversion-based photodynamic therapy (UC-PDT), and the mobilization of cytochrome c (cyt c) was amplified in response to the increased mitoROS. Specifically, this heme-containing cyt c could be monitored by varying TPP-UC(PS)’s upconversion luminescence signal (UCL), which may facilitate the in situ detection of cyt c for apoptosis research. As a proof of concept, our designed TPP-UC(PS) may provide significant opportunities for controlling cancer cell apoptosis under NIR stimulation and for studying apoptosis using the dynamic UCL, which is influenced by local cyt c.
Tsinghua University Press
Yanyan Liu,Jiawen Zhang,Changjing Zuo,Zhen Zhang,Dalong Ni,Chen Zhang,Jing Wang,Hui Zhang,Zhenwei Yao,Wenbo Bu, Upconversion nano-photosensitizer targeting into mitochondria for cancer apoptosis induction and cyt c fluorescence monitoring. NanoRes.2016, 9(11): 3257–3266