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Nano Research

Article Title

Radiofrequency electric-field heating behaviors of highly enriched semiconducting and metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

Authors

Stuart J. Corr, Division of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Mustafa Raoof, Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Surgery, The University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Brandon T. Cisneros, Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
Alvin W. Orbaek, Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Matthew A. Cheney, Division of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Justin J. Law, Division of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Nadia C. Lara, Division of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Andrew R. Barron, Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales, UK
Lon J. Wilson, Department of Chemistry and the Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Steven A. Curley, Division of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA

Keywords

radiofrequency, carbon nanotubes, metallic, semiconducting, hyperthermia

Abstract

It is theorized that enhanced thermal heating may result from exposing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) embedded in a conductive host to radiofrequency (RF) electric fields. We examine the RF-induced (13.56 MHz) heating behaviors of 95% metallic- and semiconducting-enriched SWNTs (m-/s-SWNTs) suspended in aqueous solutions with varying NaCl molarity (0.001 mM–1 M). The heating effects were only evident for host molarities below 1 mM (equivalent to 0.1 S/m) at which the s-SWNT heating rates dominated those of the m-SWNTs. The heating effects were localized to aligned and aggregated “SWNT ropes” ~1 cm in length that formed in suspension, parallel to the electric-field vector, during the RF exposure. For molarities above 1 mM, no enhancements were evident, owing to the large heating effects of the bulk ionic NaCl suspensions, which were observed in previous studies. Although larger enhancement effects proportional to the host conductivity have been theoretically predicted for m-/s-SWNT suspensions, this was not observed most likely because of the aggregation and screening effects, which diminished the scattered electric field near the m-/s-SWNTs. Our research may further the development of better nanoparticle heating agents for applications such as non-invasive RF-induced cancer hyperthermia.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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