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Nano Research

Article Title

Effect of defects on photocatalytic activity of rutile TiO2 nanorods

Authors

Zhao Zhao, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University ofTechnology, Beijing 100124, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Xiaoyan Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Guoqiang Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Zhenyu Liu, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China
Dan Qu, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Xiang Miao, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Pingyun Feng, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
Zaicheng Sun, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, CAS.3888 EastNanhu Road, Changchun 130033, China Beijing Key Laboratory for Green Catalysis and Separation, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing University ofTechnology, Beijing 100124, China

Keywords

TiO2, oxygen vacancies, photocatalytic H2 generation, defects, charge separation

Abstract

To further understand the effect of structural defects on the electrochemical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2, two synthetic approaches based on hydrothermal synthesis and post-synthetic chemical reduction to achieve oxygen defectimplantation were developed herein. These approaches led to the formation of TiO2 nanorods with uniformly distributed defects in either the bulk or on the surface, or the combination of both, in the formed TiO2 nanorods (NRs). Both approaches utilize unique TiN nanoparticles as the reaction precursor. Electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses indicate that all the studied samples exhibit similar morphology and similar specific surface areas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data confirm the existence of oxygen defects (VO). The photocatalytic properties of TiO2 with different types of implanted VO were evaluated based on photocatalytic H2 production. By optimizing the concentration of VO among the TiO2 NRs subjected to different treatments, significantly higher photocatalytic activities than that of the stoichiometric TiO2 NRs was achieved. The incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) data indicate that the enhanced photocatalytic activity arises mainly from defect-assisted charge separation, which implies that photo-generated electrons or holes can be captured by VO and suppress the charge recombination process. The results show that the defective TiO2 obtained by combining the two approaches exhibits the greatest photocatalytic activity enhancement among all the samples.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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