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Nano Research

Article Title

Perpendicular magnetic clusters with configurable domain structures via dipole–dipole interactions

Authors

Weimin Li, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK EA#03-09, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Seng Kai Wong, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Tun Seng Herng, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK EA#03-09, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore
Lee Koon Yap, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Cheow Hin Sim, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Zhengchun Yang, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK EA#03-09, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore
Yunjie Chen, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Jianzhong Shi, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Guchang Han, Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, 117608, Singapore
Junmin Xue, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK EA#03-09, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore
Jun Ding, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, BLK EA#03-09, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576, Singapore

Keywords

perpendicular anisotropy, dipole–dipole interaction, multistate magnetic recording, logic device, magnetic domino

Abstract

ABSTRACT Magnetic single-domain islands based on in-plane anisotropy (usually, shape anisotropy) and their dipole–dipole interactions have been investigated extensively in recent years. This has been driven by potential applications in magnetic recording, spintronics, magneto-biology, etc. Here, we propose a concept of outof- plane magnetic clusters with configurable domain structures (multi-flux states) via dipole–dipole interactions. Their flux stages can be switched through an external magnetic field. The concept has been successfully demonstrated by patterned [Co/Pd] islands. A [Co/Pd] multilayer exhibits a large perpendicular anisotropy, a strong physical separation, and uniform intrinsic properties after being patterned into individual islands by electron beam lithography. A threeisland cluster with six stable flux states has been realized by optimizing island size, thickness, gap, anisotropy, saturation magnetization, etc. Using [Co/Pd] multilayers, we have optimized the island structure by tuning magnetic properties (saturation magnetization and perpendicular anisotropy) using Landau–Liftshitz– Gilbert (LLG) simulation/calculation. Potential applications have been proposed, including a flexi-programmable logic device with AND, OR, NAND, and NOR functionalities and a magnetic domino, which can propagate magnetic current as far as 1 μm down from the surface via vertical dipole–dipole interactions.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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