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Nano Research

Article Title

A green synthesis of carbon nanoparticles from honey and their use in real-time photoacoustic imaging

Authors

Lina Wu, C-TRAIN and Division of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging in College of Heilongjiang Province, Department of Radiology, the 4th Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, China
Xin Cai, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Kate Nelson, Nano Research Facility (NNIN-NSF) , Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Wenxin Xing, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Jun Xia, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Ruiying Zhang, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Allen J. Stacy, C-TRAIN and Division of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA
Micah Luderer, C-TRAIN and Division of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA
Gregory M. Lanza, C-TRAIN and Division of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA
Lihong V. Wang, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Campus Box 1097, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Baozhong Shen, Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging in College of Heilongjiang Province, Department of Radiology, the 4th Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, China
Dipanjan Pan, C-TRAIN and Division of Cardiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4320 Forest Park Avenue, Saint Louis, MO 63108, USA

Keywords

carbon nanoparticle, honey, contrast agents, photoacoustic tomography, real-time imaging

Abstract

Imaging sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) could provide us with critical information about the progression of a cancerous disease. Real-time high-resolution intraoperative photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in conjunction with a near-infrared (NIR) probe may offer opportunities for the immediate imaging for direct identification and resection of SLN or collecting tissue samples. In this work a commercially amenable synthetic methodology is revealed for fabricating luminescent carbon nanoparticles with rapid clearance properties. A one-pot “green” technique is pursued, which involved rapid surface passivation of carbon nanoparticles with organic macromolecules (e.g., polysorbate, polyethyleneglycol) in solvent-free conditions. Interestingly, the naked carbon nanoparticles are derived for the first time, from commercial food grade honey. Surface coated particles are markedly smaller (~7 nm) than previously explored particles (gold, single-walled carbon nanotubes, copper) for SLN imaging. The results indicate an exceptionally rapid signal enhancement (~2 min) of the SLN. Owing to their strong optical absorption in the NIR region, tiny size and rapid lymphatic transport, this platform offers great potential for faster resection of SLN and may lower complications caused in axillary investigation by mismarking with dyes or low-resolution imaging techniques.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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