Stable ultrahigh specific capacitance of NiO nanorod arrays
Pseudocapacitance, cycling stability, NiO, array, nanorod
ABSTRACT Previously reported examples of electrochemical pseudocapacitors based on cheap metal oxides have suffered from the need to compromise between specific capacitance, rate capacitance, and reversibility. Here we show that NiO nanorod arrays on Ni foam have a combination of ultrahigh specific capacitance (2018 F/g at 2.27 A/g), high power density (1536 F/g at 22.7 A/g), and good cycling stability (only 8% of capacitance was lost in the first 100 cycles with no further change in the subsequent 400 cycles). This resulted in an improvement in the reversible capacitance record for NiO by 50% or more, reaching 80% of the theoretical value, and demonstrated that a three-dimensional regular porous array structure can afford all of these virtues in a supercapacitor. The excellent performance can be attributed to the slim (< 20 nm) rod morphology, high crystallinity, regularly aligned array structure and strong bonding of the nanorods to the metallic Ni substrate, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
Tsinghua University Press
Zhiyi Lu,Zheng Chang,Junfeng Liu,Xiaoming Sun, Stable ultrahigh specific capacitance of NiO nanorod arrays. NanoRes.2011, 4(7): 658–665