Nano Research

Article Title

Highly sensitive protein sensor based on thermally-reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistor


Biosensor, thermally-reduced graphene oxide, field-effect transistor, protein detection


We report the fabrication of a highly sensitive field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor using thermally-reduced graphene oxide (TRGO) sheets functionalized with gold nanoparticle (NP)–antibody conjugates. Probe antibody was labeled on the surface of TRGO sheets through Au NPs and electrical detection of protein binding (Immunoglobulin G/IgG and anti-Immunoglobulin G/anti-IgG) was accomplished by FET and direct current (dc) measurements. The protein binding events induced significant changes in the resistance of the TRGO sheet, which is referred to as the sensor response. The dependence of the sensor response on the TRGO base resistance in the sensor and the antibody areal density on the TRGO sheet was systematically studied, from which a correlation of the sensor response with sensor parameters was found: the sensor response was more significant with larger TRGO base resistance and higher antibody areal density. The detection limit of the novel biosensor was around the 0.2 ng/mL level, which is among the best of reported carbon nanomaterial-based protein sensors and can be further optimized by tuning the sensor structure.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press