Nano Research

Article Title

Electrocondensation and evaporation of attoliter water droplets: Direct visualization using atomic force microscopy


Electrocondensation, attoliter water droplets, biased atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography, electron beam induced deposition, carbonaceous deposition


Working with a biased atomic force microscope (AFM) tip in the tapping mode under ambient atmosphere, attoliter (10–18 L) water droplet patterns have been generated on a patterned carbonaceous surface. This is essentially electrocondensation of water leading to charged droplets, as evidenced from electrostatic force microscopy measurements. The droplets are unusual in that they exhibit a highly corrugated surface and evaporate rather slowly, taking several tens of minutes.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press