Nano Research

Article Title

Mass production of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and their applications


two-dimensional (2D) materials, mass production, "top-down" exfoliation, "bottom-up" synthesis, applications


Two-dimensional (2D) materials are promising candidates in wide applications including energy storage and conversion, sensors, flexible devices, etc. The low-cost production of 2D materials with large quantities and demanded quality is the precondition for their commercial uses. For graphene and its derivatives, relatively mature techniques have been established for their scalable preparation and industrial applications. Whereas the mass production of 2D materials beyond graphene is still in its early age and it lacks a summary on this topic. This review systematically describes the state-of-the-art approaches for high-yield preparation of 2D materials beyond graphene, including "top-down" exfoliation and "bottom-up" synthetic approaches. In particular, each method is discussed from the perspectives of its principle, optimization attempts, characteristics of the obtained 2D materials, and its scalability potential. The applications that require massively-produced 2D materials are highlighted, including electrocatalysis, batteries, supercapacitors, mechanical and chemical sensors, as well as electromagnetic interference shielding and microwave absorption devices. Finally, we propose the challenges and opportunities for scalable preparation and commercial applications of 2D materials.


Tsinghua University Press