Nano Research

Article Title

Intrinsic carrier multiplication in layered Bi2O2Se avalanche photodiodes with gain bandwidth product exceeding 1 GHz


layered semiconductor, photodetector, high-frequency, Schottky diode, impact ionization


Emerging layered semiconductors present multiple advantages for optoelectronic technologies including high carrier mobilities, strong light-matter interactions, and tunable optical absorption and emission. Here, metal-semiconductor-metal avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are fabricated from Bi2O2Se crystals, which consist of electrostatically bound [Bi2O2]2+ and [Se]2- layers. The resulting APDs possess an intrinsic carrier multiplication factor up to 400 at 7 K with a responsivity gain exceeding 3,000 A/W and bandwidth of ~ 400 kHz at a visible wavelength of 515.6 nm, ultimately resulting in a gain bandwidth product exceeding 1 GHz. Due to exceptionally low dark currents, Bi2O2Se APDs also yield high detectivities up to 4.6 × 1014 Jones. A systematic analysis of the photocurrent temperature and bias dependence reveals that the carrier multiplication process in Bi2O2Se APDs is consistent with a reverse biased Schottky diode model with a barrier height of ~ 44 meV, in contrast to the charge trapping extrinsic gain mechanism that dominates most layered semiconductor phototransistors. In this manner, layered Bi2O2Se APDs provide a unique platform that can be exploited in a diverse range of high-performance photodetector applications.


Tsinghua University Press