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Nano Research

Article Title

Field-effect at electrical contacts to two-dimensional materials

Authors

Yao Guo, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China; Department of Electrical Engineering and Stanford SystemX Alliance Stanford University Stanford CA 94305 USA
Yan Sun, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Alvin Tang, Department of Electrical Engineering and Stanford SystemX Alliance Stanford University Stanford CA 94305 USA
Ching-Hua Wang, Department of Electrical Engineering and Stanford SystemX Alliance Stanford University Stanford CA 94305 USA
Yanqing Zhao, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Mengmeng Bai, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Shuting Xu, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Zheqi Xu, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Tao Tang, Advanced Manufacturing EDA Co. Ltd. Shanghai 201204 China
Sheng Wang, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices Department of Electronics Peking University Beijing 100871 China
Chenguang Qiu, Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices Department of Electronics Peking University Beijing 100871 China
Kang Xu, Department of Applied Physics The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong China
Xubiao Peng, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Junfeng Han, School of Physics Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 China
Eric Pop, Department of Electrical Engineering and Stanford SystemX Alliance Stanford University Stanford CA 94305 USA
Yang Chai, Department of Applied Physics The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong China

Keywords

field-effect, electrical contact, two-dimensional materials, nonlinearity, in-memory-computing

Abstract

The inferior electrical contact to two-dimensional (2D) materials is a critical challenge for their application in post-silicon very large- scale integrated circuits. Electrical contacts were generally related to their resistive effect, quantified as contact resistance. With a systematic investigation, this work demonstrates a capacitive metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) field-effect at the electrical contacts to 2D materials: The field-effect depletes or accumulates charge carriers, redistributes the voltage potential, and gives rise to abnormal current saturation and nonlinearity. On one hand, the current saturation hinders the devices' driving ability, which can be eliminated with carefully engineered contact configurations. On the other hand, by introducing the nonlinearity to monolithic analog artificial neural network circuits, the circuits' perception ability can be significantly enhanced, as evidenced using a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) critical illness prediction model. This work provides a comprehension of the field-effect at the electrical contacts to 2D materials, which is fundamental to the design, simulation, and fabrication of electronics based on 2D materials.

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