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Nano Research

Article Title

Single-atom catalysis enables long-life, high-energy lithium-sulfur batteries

Keywords

single-atom catalysis, lithium–sulfur battery, polysulfide conversion, shuttle effect, atomic-level insight

Abstract

With high energy density and low material cost, lithium–sulfur batteries (LSBs) emerge quite expeditiously as a fascinating energy storage system over the past decade. Broad applications of LSBs ranging from electric vehicles to stationary grid storage seem rather bright in recent literatures. However, there still exist many pressing challenges to be addressed because we do not yet fully understand and control the electrode−electrolyte interface chemistries during battery operation, such as polysulfide shuttling and poor utilization of active sulfur. Single-atom catalysts (SACs) pave new possibilities of tackling the tough issues due to their decent applicability in the atomic-level identification of structure–activity relationships and reaction mechanism, as well as their structural tunability with atomic precision. This review comprehensively summarizes the very recent advances in utilization of highly active SACs for LSBs by stating and discussing the related publications, which involves catalyst synthesis routes, battery performance, catalytic mechanisms, optimization strategies, and promises to achieve long-life, high-energy LSBs. We see that endeavors to employ SACs to modify sulfur cathode have allowed efficient polysulfide conversion and confinement, leading to the minimization of shuttle effect. Parallel efforts are being devoted to extending the scope of SACs to cell separator and lithium metal anode in order to unlock the full potential of LSBs. We also obtain mechanistic insights into battery chemistries and nature of SACs in their strong interactions with polysulfides through advanced in situ characterizations documented. Overall, acceleration in the development of LSBs by introducing SACs is noticeable, and this cutting edge needs more attentions to further promoting the design of better LSBs.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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