Nano Research

Article Title

Wireless phototherapeutic contact lenses and glasses with red light-emitting diodes


transparent electronics, wearable healthcare, red light-emitting diodes, phototherapies


Light-mediated therapeutics have attracted considerable attention as a method for the treatment of ophthalmologic diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, because of their non-invasiveness and the effectiveness to ameliorate the oxidative stress of retinal cells. However, the current phototherapeutic devices are opaque, bulky, and tethered forms, so they are not feasible for use in continuous treatment during the patient’s daily life. Herein, we report wireless, wearable phototherapeutic devices with red light-emitting diodes for continuous treatments. Red light-emitting diodes were formed to be conformal to three-dimensional surfaces of glasses and contact lenses. Furthermore, fabricated light-emitting diodes had either transparency or a miniaturized size so that the user’s view is not obstructed. Also, these devices were operated wirelessly with control of the light intensity. In addition, in-vitro and in-vivo tests using human retinal epithelial cells and a live rabbit demonstrated the effectiveness and reliable operation as phototherapeutic devices.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press