Nano Research

Article Title

Living electronics


bioelectronics, signaling, biohybrid, synthetic biology, extracellular electron transfer, electrochemically active bacteria


Living electronics that converges the unique functioning modality of biological and electrical circuits has the potential to transform both fundamental biophysical/biochemical inquiries and translational biomedical/engineering applications. This article will review recent progress in overcoming the intrinsic physiochemical and signaling mismatches at biological/electronic interfaces, with specific focus on strategic approaches in forging the functional synergy through: (1) biohybrid electronics, where genetically encoded bio-machineries are hybridized with electronic transducers to facilitate the translation/interpretation of biologically derived signals; and (2) biosynthetic electronics, where biogenic electron pathways are designed and programmed to bridge the gap between internal biological and external electrical circuits. These efforts are reconstructing the way that artificial electronics communicate with living systems, and opening up new possibilities for many cross-disciplinary applications in biosynthesis, sensing, energy transduction, and hybrid information processing.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press