Nano Research

Article Title

A phenazine anode for high-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries in a wide temperature range


aqueous rechargeable batteries, phenazine, Na0.44MnO2, alkali-ion electrolyte, wide temperature


Aqueous rechargeable batteries are a possible strategy for large-scale energy storage systems. However, limited choices of anode materials restrict their further application. Here we report phenazine (PNZ) as stable anode materials in different alkali-ion (Li+, Na+, K+) electrolyte. A novel full cell is assembled by phenazine anode, Na0.44MnO2 cathode and 10 M NaOH electrolyte to further explore the electrochemical performance of phenazine anode. This battery is able to achieve high capacity (176.7 mAh·g−1 at 4 C (1.2 A·g−1)), ultralong cycling life (capacity retention of 80% after 13,000 cycles at 4 C), and excellent rate capacity (92 mAh·g−1 at 100 C (30 A·g−1)). The reaction mechanism of PNZ during charge–discharge process is demonstrated by in situ Raman spectroscopy, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Furthermore, the system is able to successfully operate at wide temperature range from −20 to 70 °C and achieves remarkable electrochemical performance.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press