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Nano Research

Article Title

Ultrafine Sn4P3 nanocrystals from chloride reduction on mechanically activated Na surface for sodium/lithium ion batteries

Authors

Zhiliang Liu, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China
Xiangxi Wang, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Zhuoyan Wu, Comprehensive Energy Research Center, Institute of Science and Technology, China Three Gorges Corporation, Beijing 100038, China
Sungjin Yang, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China
Shaolei Yang, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China
Shunpeng Chen, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China
Xinteng Wu, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Xinghua Chang, Key Laboratory for Mineral Materials and Application of Hunan Province, School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Piaoping Yang, Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
Jie Zheng, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China
Xingguo Li, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, China

Keywords

metal phosphide, chloride reduction, ultrafine Sn4P3 nanocrystals, lithium-ion battery (LIB), sodium-ion battery (SIB), anode material

Abstract

Nanostructured metal phosphides are very attractive materials in energy storage and conversion, but their applications are severely limited by complicated preparation steps, harsh conditions and large excess of highly toxic phosphorus source. Here we develop a highly efficient one-step method to synthesize Sn4P3 nanostructure based on simultaneous reduction of SnCl4 and PCl3 on mechanically activated Na surface and in situ phosphorization. The low-toxic PCl3 displays a very high phosphorizing efficiency (100%). Furthermore, this simple method is powerful to control phosphide size. Ultrafine Sn4P3 nanocrystals (4P3/C) are obtained, which is due to the unique bottom-up surface-limited reaction. As the anode material for sodium/lithium ion batteries (SIBs/LIBs), the Sn4P3/C shows profound sodiation/lithiation extents, good phase-conversion reversibility, excellent rate performance and long cycling stability, retaining high capacities of 420 mAh/g for SIBs and 760 mAh/g for LIBs even after 400 cycles at 1.0 A/g. Combining simple and efficient preparation, low-toxic and high-efficiency phosphorus source and good control of nanosize, this method is very promising for low-cost and scalable preparation of high-performance Sn4P3 anode.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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