Visualizing grain boundaries in monolayer MoSe2 using mild H2O vapor etching
MoSe2, grain boundary, hot water vapor, single crystal
ABSTRACT Beyond graphene, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted significant attention owing to their potential in next-generation nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. Nevertheless, grain boundaries are ubiquitous in large-area as-grown TMD materials and would significantly affect their band structure, electrical transport, and optical properties. Therefore, the characterization of grain boundaries is essential for engineering the properties and optimizing the growth in TMD materials. Although the existence of boundaries can be measured using scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, or nonlinear optical microscopy, a universal, convenient, and accurate method to detect boundaries with a twist angle over a large scale is still lacking. Herein, we report a high-throughput method using mild hot H2O etching to visualize grain boundaries of TMDs under an optical microscope, while ensuring that the method is nearly noninvasive to grain domains. This technique utilizes the reactivity difference between stable grain domains and defective grain boundaries and the mild etching capacity of hot water vapor. As grain boundaries of two domains with twist angles have defective lines, this method enables to visualize all types of grain boundaries unambiguously. Moreover, the characterization is based on an optical microscope and therefore naturally of a large scale. We further demonstrate the successful application of this method to other TMD materials such as MoS2 and WSe2. Our technique facilitates the large-area characterization of grain boundaries and will accelerate the controllable growth of large single-crystal TMDs.
Tsinghua University Press
Jinhuan Wang,Xiaozhi Xu,Ruixi Qiao,Jing Liang,Can Liu,Bohao Zheng,Lei Liu,Peng Gao,Qingze Jiao,Dapeng Yu,Yun Zhao,Kaihui Liu, Visualizing grain boundaries in monolayer MoSe2 using mild H2O vapor etching. NanoRes.2018, 11(8): 4082–4089