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Nano Research

Article Title

Development, applications, and future directions of triboelectric nanogenerators

Authors

Mingyuan Ma, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Zhuo Kang, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Qingliang Liao, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Qian Zhang, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Fangfang Gao, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Xuan Zhao, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Zheng Zhang, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;
Yue Zhang, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials and Technologies, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China;

Keywords

triboelectric nanogenerator, energy harvesting, self-powered sensors, blue energy, Internet of Things

Abstract

ABSTRACT Since the invention of the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in 2012, it has become one of the most vital innovations in energy harvesting technologies. The TENG has seen enormous progress to date, particularly in applications for energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. It starts with the simple working principles of the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction, but can scavenge almost any kind of ambient mechanical energy in our daily life into electricity. Extraordinary output performance optimization of the TENG has been achieved, with high area power density and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, TENGs can also be utilized as self-powered active sensors to monitor many environmental parameters. This review describes the recent progress in mainstream energy harvesting and self-powered sensing research based on TENG technology. The birth and development of the TENG are introduced, following which structural designs and performance optimizations for output performance enhancement of the TENG are discussed. The major applications of the TENG as a sustainable power source or a self-powered sensor are presented. The TENG, with rationally designed structures, can convert irregular and mostly low-frequency mechanical energies from the environment, such as human motion, mechanical vibration, moving automobiles, wind, raindrops, and ocean waves. In addition, the development of self-powered active sensors for a variety of environmental simulations based on the TENG is presented. The TENG plays a great role in promoting the development of emerging Internet of Things, which can make everyday objects connect more smartly and energyefficiently in the coming years. Finally, the future directions and perspectives of the TENG are outlined. The TENG is not only a sustainable micro-power source for small devices, but also serves as a potential macro-scale generator of power from water waves in the future.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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