Conjugated polymer-mediated synthesis of sulfur- and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as efficient anode materials for sodium ion batteries
sodium ion battery, conjugated polymer, carbon nanotube, heteroatom doping
ABSTRACT Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have attracted significant attention as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a conjugated polymer-mediated synthesis of sulfur and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanotubes (S/N-CT) via the carbonization of sulfur-containing polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes. It is found that the carbonization technique greatly influences the structural features and thus the Na-storage behavior of the S/N-CT materials. The carbon nanotubes developed using a two-step carbonization process (heating at 400 °C and then at 900 °C) exhibit a high specific surface area, enlarged interlayer distance, small charge transfer resistance, enhanced reaction kinetics, as well as a large number of defects and active sites; further, they exhibit a high reversible capacity of 340 mAh·g–1 at 0.1 A·g–1 and a remarkable cycling stability with a capacity of 141 mAh·g–1 at 5 A·g–1 (94% retention after 3,000 cycles). Direct carbonization of conjugated polymers with a specific morphology is an eco-friendly and low-cost technique for the synthesis of dual atom-doped carbon nanomaterials for application in energy devices. However, the carbonization process should be carefully controlled in order to better tune the structure–property relationship.
Tsinghua University Press
Yanzhen He,Xijiang Han,Yunchen Du,Bo Song,Bin Zhang,Wei Zhang,Ping Xu, Conjugated polymer-mediated synthesis of sulfur- and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as efficient anode materials for sodium ion batteries. NanoRes.2018, 11(5): 2573–2585