An additive dripping technique using diphenyl ether for tuning perovskite crystallization for high-efficiency solar cells
perovskite solar cells, additive dripping, crystallinity, DPE
ABSTRACT Controlling the morphology of the MAPbI3−xClx active layer has remained a challenge towards advancing perovskite solar cells (PvSCs). Here, we demonstrate that a low temperature additive dripping (AD) treatment step, using diphenyl ether (DPE), can significantly improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE), compared to the control device using chlorobenzene (CB), by 15% up to 16.64%, with a high current density (JSC) of 22.67 mA/cm2. We chose DPE for its small and appropriate dipole moment to adjust the solubility of the MAPbI3−xClx precursor during the formation of the intermediate phase and the MAPbI3−xClx phase. The low DPE vapor pressure provides a longer processing window for the removal of residual dimethylformamide (DMF), during the annealing process, for improved perovskite formation. Imaging and X-ray analysis both reveal that the MAPbI3−xClx film exhibits enlarged grains with increased crystallinity. Together, these improvements result in reduced carrier recombination and hole trap-state density in the MAPbI3−xClx film, while minimizing the hysteresis problem typical of PvSCs. These results show that the AD approach is a promising technique for improving PvSCs.
Tsinghua University Press
Di Huang,Tenghooi Goh,Yifan Zheng,Zilun Qin,Jiao Zhao,Suling Zhao,Zheng Xu,André D. Taylor, An additive dripping technique using diphenyl ether for tuning perovskite crystallization for high-efficiency solar cells. NanoRes.2018, 11(5): 2648–2657