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Nano Research

Article Title

An additive dripping technique using diphenyl ether for tuning perovskite crystallization for high-efficiency solar cells

Authors

Di Huang, Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511, USA Institute of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Tenghooi Goh, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511, USA
Yifan Zheng, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511, USA
Zilun Qin, Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China Institute of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Jiao Zhao, Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China Institute of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Suling Zhao, Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China Institute of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Zheng Xu, Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information (Beijing Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100044, China Institute of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
André D. Taylor, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven CT 06511, USA

Keywords

perovskite solar cells, additive dripping, crystallinity, DPE

Abstract

ABSTRACT Controlling the morphology of the MAPbI3−xClx active layer has remained a challenge towards advancing perovskite solar cells (PvSCs). Here, we demonstrate that a low temperature additive dripping (AD) treatment step, using diphenyl ether (DPE), can significantly improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE), compared to the control device using chlorobenzene (CB), by 15% up to 16.64%, with a high current density (JSC) of 22.67 mA/cm2. We chose DPE for its small and appropriate dipole moment to adjust the solubility of the MAPbI3−xClx precursor during the formation of the intermediate phase and the MAPbI3−xClx phase. The low DPE vapor pressure provides a longer processing window for the removal of residual dimethylformamide (DMF), during the annealing process, for improved perovskite formation. Imaging and X-ray analysis both reveal that the MAPbI3−xClx film exhibits enlarged grains with increased crystallinity. Together, these improvements result in reduced carrier recombination and hole trap-state density in the MAPbI3−xClx film, while minimizing the hysteresis problem typical of PvSCs. These results show that the AD approach is a promising technique for improving PvSCs.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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