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Nano Research

Article Title

Sodium-doped carbon nitride nanotubes for efficient visible light-driven hydrogen production

Authors

Longshuai Zhang, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Ning Ding, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Muneaki Hashimoto, Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan
Koudai Iwasaki, Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan
Noriyasu Chikamori, Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan
Kazuya Nakata, Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan
Yuzhuan Xu, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Jiangjian Shi, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Huijue Wu, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Yanhong Luo, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Dongmei Li, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Akira Fujishima, Photocatalysis International Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022, Japan
Qingbo Meng, Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190, China School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Keywords

graphitic carbon nitrides, nanotubes, alkali metal doping, photocatalytic hydrogen production, hydrothermal/thermopolymerization processes, two-step synthesis

Abstract

ABSTRACT Sodium-doped carbon nitride nanotubes (Nax-CNNTs) were prepared by a green and simple two-step method and applied in photocatalytic water splitting for the first time. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) element mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirm that sodium was successfully introduced in the carbon nitride nanotubes (CNNTs), and the intrinsic structure of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was also maintained in the products. Moreover, the porous structure of the CNNTs leads to relatively large specific surface areas. Photocatalytic tests indicate that the porous tubular structure and Na+ doping can synergistically enhance the hydrogen evolution rate under visible light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation in the presence of sacrificial agents, leading to a hydrogen evolution rate as high as 143 μmol·h−1 (20 mg catalyst). Moreover, other alkali metal-doped CNNTs, such as Li x-CNNTs and Kx-CNNTs, were tested; both materials were found to enhance the hydrogen evolution rate, but to a lower extent compared with the Na x-CNNTs. This highlights the general applicability of the present method to prepare alkali metal-doped CNNTs; a preliminary mechanism for the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction in the Nax-CNNTs is also proposed.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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