Flow behavior of liquid metal in the connected fascial space: Intervaginal space injection in the rat wrist and mice with tumor
fascia and fascial space, liquid metal, hierarchical multiphase porous medium, intervaginal space injection (ISI), tumor
ABSTRACT The fascia and the fascial space can help provide a better understanding of the body. An intervaginal space injection (ISI) provides unique advantages that require further investigation. An upper limb model including physiological conditions and the tumor process was chosen to determine the flow behavior of liquid metal after ISI. In normal rats, after the injection of liquid metal into the intervaginal space comprising tendons, vessels, and nerves, magnetic resonance imaging and an anatomy experiment indicated that the liquid metal wrapped around the fascial space and finally reached the fingertip downstream and the armpit upstream in addition to the neurovascular bundle without vessels or lymph nodes. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images, we discovered that the liquid metal was wrapped around the fibers of the fascia and moved forward in microscale or nanoscale areas. These data confirmed a fascia-based pathway. In tumors, the liquid metal moved to the tumor capsule through the damaged spot, where cancer cells destroy the integrity of the fascia between the normal cells and cancer cells. The liquid metal partly wrapped around the tumor and separated the tumor from the surrounding normal muscle. The ESEM images showed that fibers of the fascia penetrated the tumor, thus forming a network through which the liquid metal penetrated the tumor. Our study illustrated the physiological and pathological flow behavior of liquid metal in the upper limb after ISI and demonstrated a nonvascular pathway in the fascia. ISI may be useful for clinical treatment in the fascial pathway.
Tsinghua University Press
Nan Hu,Yupeng Cao,Zhuo Ao,Xinxiao Han,Qiang Zhang,Wentao Liu,Sidi Liu,Fulong Liao,Dong Han, Flow behavior of liquid metal in the connected fascial space: Intervaginal space injection in the rat wrist and mice with tumor. NanoRes.2018, 11(4): 2265–2276