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Nano Research

Article Title

Flow behavior of liquid metal in the connected fascial space: Intervaginal space injection in the rat wrist and mice with tumor

Authors

Nan Hu, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengde Medical University, Chengde 066000, China
Yupeng Cao, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Zhuo Ao, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China
Xinxiao Han, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Qiang Zhang, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Wentao Liu, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China
Sidi Liu, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China
Fulong Liao, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
Dong Han, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China School of Future Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Keywords

fascia and fascial space, liquid metal, hierarchical multiphase porous medium, intervaginal space injection (ISI), tumor

Abstract

ABSTRACT The fascia and the fascial space can help provide a better understanding of the body. An intervaginal space injection (ISI) provides unique advantages that require further investigation. An upper limb model including physiological conditions and the tumor process was chosen to determine the flow behavior of liquid metal after ISI. In normal rats, after the injection of liquid metal into the intervaginal space comprising tendons, vessels, and nerves, magnetic resonance imaging and an anatomy experiment indicated that the liquid metal wrapped around the fascial space and finally reached the fingertip downstream and the armpit upstream in addition to the neurovascular bundle without vessels or lymph nodes. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images, we discovered that the liquid metal was wrapped around the fibers of the fascia and moved forward in microscale or nanoscale areas. These data confirmed a fascia-based pathway. In tumors, the liquid metal moved to the tumor capsule through the damaged spot, where cancer cells destroy the integrity of the fascia between the normal cells and cancer cells. The liquid metal partly wrapped around the tumor and separated the tumor from the surrounding normal muscle. The ESEM images showed that fibers of the fascia penetrated the tumor, thus forming a network through which the liquid metal penetrated the tumor. Our study illustrated the physiological and pathological flow behavior of liquid metal in the upper limb after ISI and demonstrated a nonvascular pathway in the fascia. ISI may be useful for clinical treatment in the fascial pathway.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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