Nano Research

Article Title

Rational design and synthesis of hierarchically structured SnO2 microspheres assembled from hollow porous nanoplates as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries


Kirkendall diffusion, nanoplate, tin oxide, lithium-ion battery, spray pyrolysis


ABSTRACT Herein, hierarchically structured SnO2 microspheres are designed and synthesized as an efficient anode material for lithium-ion batteries using hollow SnO2 nanoplates. Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3-DOM) SnOx-C microspheres synthesized by spray pyrolysis are transformed into hierarchically structured SnO2 microspheres by a two-step post-treatment process. Sulfidation produces hierarchically structured SnS-SnS2-C microspheres comprising tin sulfide nanoplate and carbon building blocks. A subsequent oxidation process produces SnO2 microspheres from hollow SnO2 nanoplate building blocks, which are formed by Kirkendall diffusion. The discharge capacity of the hierarchically structured SnO2 microspheres at a current density of 5 A·g−1 for the 600th cycle is 404 mA·h·g−1. The hierarchically structured SnO2 microspheres have reversible discharge capacities of 609 and 158 mA·h·g−1 at current densities of 0.5 and 30 A·g−1, respectively. The ultrafine nanosheets contain empty voids that allow excellent lithium-ion storage performance, even at high current densities.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press