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Nano Research

Article Title

Nanoformulation of metal complexes: Intelligent stimuli-responsive platforms for precision therapeutics

Authors

Ming Hu, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371
Xiangzhao Ai, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371
Zhimin Wang, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371
Zhijun Zhang, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371
Haolun Cheong, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371
Wenmin Zhang, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China
Jun Lin, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China
Juan Li, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China
Huanghao Yang, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China
Bengang Xing, Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350116, China

Keywords

precision therapeutics, metal drug complex, multifunctional nanomaterials, stimuli-responsive

Abstract

ABSTRACT Precision medicine is a potential effective therapeutic for various human diseases. Currently, metal complex-based drugs are being successfully used in clinical applications owing to diverse properties such as multiple redox states, photo-induced ligand exchange, and preferential ligand and coordination numbers, which facilitate drug design and development. However, drawbacks such as toxicity, lack of specificity, and severe side effects have hampered their therapeutic outcome. Therefore, innovative strategies for improving the specificity and pharmacokinetics of conventional metal complex-based therapeutic agents are required. Recently, nanotechnology, which provides a unique toolbox for developing effective and safer medicine, has attracted considerable attention, mainly because of their ability to reduce side effects and enhance drug loading efficiency and pharmacokinetics. Considering the promising chemical and physical properties of diverse nanostructures, nanoformulation of metal complexes can be used to effectively address the problems associated with current metallodrug complexes, especially those based on stimuli-responsive therapeutic strategies, with excellent spatial, temporal, and dosage control. In this review, we have mainly focused on the specificity and environment-responsiveness of metallodrug nanoformulations as therapeutics, and summarized the recent strategies being used for developing metal complex-functionalized intelligent nanoplatforms, which respond to various types of stimuli, including endogenous signals (pH, redox conditions, and enzyme activities) or external triggers (light irradiation and magnetic field manipulations). In addition, we have also discussed the potential challenges associated with use of metallodrugs and their nanoformulations as effective precision therapy with improved specificity and minimal side effects.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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