Pristine mesoporous carbon hollow spheres as safe adjuvants induce excellent Th2-biased immune response
invaginated mesoporous carbon hollow spheres, adjuvant, ovalbumin, vaccine, immune response
ABSTRACT The development of a safe and effective adjuvant that amplifies the immune response to an antigen is important for vaccine delivery. In this study, we developed pristine mesoporous carbon hollow spheres as high-capacity vaccine protein nanocarriers and safe adjuvants for boosting the immune response. Mono-dispersed invaginated mesostructured hollow carbon spheres (IMHCSs) have an average particle size of ~200 nm, large pore size of 15 nm, and high pore volume of 2.85 cm3·g–1. IMHCSs exhibited a very high loading capacity (1,040 μg·mg–1) towards ovalbumin (OVA, a model antigen), controlled OVA release behavior, excellent safety profile to normal cells, and high antigen delivery efficacy towards macrophages. In vivo immunization studies in mice demonstrated that OVA-loaded IMHCSs induced a 3-fold higher IgG response compared to a traditional adjuvant QuilA used in veterinary vaccine research. OVA delivered by IMHCSs induced a higher IgG1 concentration than IgG2a, indicating a T-helper 2 (Th2)-polarized response. Interferon-γ and interleukin-4 concentration analysis revealed both T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 immune responses induced by OVAloaded IMHCSs. IMHCSs are safer adjuvants than QuilA. Our study revealed that pure IMHCSs without further functionalization can be used as a safe adjuvant for promoting Th2-biased immune responses for vaccine delivery.
Tsinghua University Press
Manasi Jambhrunkar,Meihua Yu,Hongwei Zhang,Prasanna Abbaraju,Anand Kumar Meka,Antonino Cavallaro,Yao Lu,Neena Mitter,Chengzhong Yu, Pristine mesoporous carbon hollow spheres as safe adjuvants induce excellent Th2-biased immune response. NanoRes.2018, 11(1): 370–382