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Nano Research

Article Title

Size and time dependent internalization of label-free nano-graphene oxide in human macrophages

Authors

Rafael G. Mendes, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany
Angelo Mandarino, IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany
Britta Koch, IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany
Anne K. Meyer, IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany
Alicja Bachmatiuk, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, Zabrze 41-819, Poland
Cordula Hirsch, EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
Thomas Gemming, IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany
Oliver G. Schmidt, IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany
Zhongfan Liu, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Centre for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Mark H. Rümmeli, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, P. O.Box D-01171 Dresden, Germany Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, Zabrze 41-819, Poland

Keywords

graphene oxide, THP-1 cells, label-free, uptake, size dependence

Abstract

ABSTRACT Graphene oxide shows great promise as a material for biomedical applications, e.g., as a multi-drug delivery platform. With this in view, reports of studies on the interaction between nanosized graphene oxide flakes and biological cells are beginning to emerge. However, the number of studies remains limited, and most used labeled graphene oxide samples to track the material upon endocytosis. Unfortunately, the labeling process alters the surface functionality of the graphene oxide, and this additional functionalization has been shown to alter the cellular response. Hence, in this work we used label-free graphene oxide. We carefully tracked the uptake of three different nanoscale graphene oxide flake size distributions using scanning/transmission electron microscopy. Uptake was investigated in undifferentiated human monocyte cells (THP-1) and differentiated macrophage cells. The data show clear size dependence for uptake, such that larger graphene oxide flakes (and clusters) are more easily taken up by the cells compared to smaller flakes. Moreover, uptake is shown to occur very rapidly, within two min of incubation with THP-1 cells. The data highlights a crucial need for cellular incubation studies with nanoparticles, to be conducted for short incubation periods as certain dependencies (e.g., size and concentration) are lost with longer incubation periods.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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