Nano Research

Article Title

Moisture-driven phase transition for improved perovskite solar cells with reduced trap-state density


perovskite solar cells, phase transition, moisture treatment, film growth


ABSTRACT We report a mechanistic understanding of a moisture-driven intermediate-phase transition that improves the quality of perovskite thin films based on a lead-acetate precursor, improving the power-conversion efficiency. We clarify the composition of the intermediate phase and attribute the transition of this phase to the hygroscopic nature of the organic product, i.e., methylammonium acetate. Thermal annealing aids in the coarsening of the grains. These decoupled processes result in better crystal formation with a lower spatial and energetic distribution of traps. Thermal annealing of the films without exposure to air results in a faster intermediate-phase transition and grain coarsening, which occur simultaneously, leading to disorder in the films and a higher deep trap-state density. Our results indicate the need for a humid environment for the growth of high-quality perovskite films and provide insight into intermediate-phase dissociation and conversion kinetics. Thus, they are useful for the large-scale production of efficient solution-processed perovskite solar cells.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press