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Nano Research

Article Title

Challenges and perspectives on high and intermediate-temperature sodium batteries

Keywords

sodium, batteries, high-temperature, intermediate-temperature, electrolytes.

Abstract

ABSTRACT Energy storage systems are selected depending on factors such as storage capacity, available power, discharge time, self-discharge, efficiency, or durability. Additional parameters to be considered are safety, cost, feasibility, and environmental aspects. Sodium-based batteries (Na–S, NaNiCl2) typically require operation temperatures of 300–350 °C. The high operating temperatures substantially increase the operating costs and raise safety issues. This updated review describes the state-of-the-art materials for high-temperature sodium batteries and the trends towards the development and optimization of intermediate and low-temperature devices. Recent advances in inorganic solid electrolytes, glass-ceramic electrolytes, and polymer solid electrolytes are of immense importance in all-solid-state sodium batteries. Systems such as Na+ super ionic conductor (NASICON, Na1+xZr2P3–xSixO12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3)), glass-ceramic 94Na3PS4·6Na4SiS4, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)–sodium triflate (NaCF3SO3) are also discussed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are also included as novel electrolyte solvents. This update discusses the progress of on-going strategies to enhance the conductivity, optimize the electrolyte/electrode interface, and improve the cell design of emerging technologies. This work aims to cover the recent advances in electrode and electrolyte materials for sodium– sulfur and sodium–metal-halide (zeolite battery research Africa project (ZEBRA)) batteries for use at high and intermediate temperatures.

Graphical Abstract

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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