Challenges and perspectives on high and intermediate-temperature sodium batteries
sodium, batteries, high-temperature, intermediate-temperature, electrolytes.
ABSTRACT Energy storage systems are selected depending on factors such as storage capacity, available power, discharge time, self-discharge, efficiency, or durability. Additional parameters to be considered are safety, cost, feasibility, and environmental aspects. Sodium-based batteries (Na–S, NaNiCl2) typically require operation temperatures of 300–350 °C. The high operating temperatures substantially increase the operating costs and raise safety issues. This updated review describes the state-of-the-art materials for high-temperature sodium batteries and the trends towards the development and optimization of intermediate and low-temperature devices. Recent advances in inorganic solid electrolytes, glass-ceramic electrolytes, and polymer solid electrolytes are of immense importance in all-solid-state sodium batteries. Systems such as Na+ super ionic conductor (NASICON, Na1+xZr2P3–xSixO12 (0 ≤ x ≤ 3)), glass-ceramic 94Na3PS4·6Na4SiS4, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)–sodium triflate (NaCF3SO3) are also discussed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are also included as novel electrolyte solvents. This update discusses the progress of on-going strategies to enhance the conductivity, optimize the electrolyte/electrode interface, and improve the cell design of emerging technologies. This work aims to cover the recent advances in electrode and electrolyte materials for sodium– sulfur and sodium–metal-halide (zeolite battery research Africa project (ZEBRA)) batteries for use at high and intermediate temperatures.
Tsinghua University Press
Karina B. Hueso,Verónica Palomares,Michel Armand,Teófilo Rojo, Challenges and perspectives on high and intermediate-temperature sodium batteries. NanoRes.2017, 10(12): 4082–4114