Nano Research

Article Title

Two-photon luminescence imaging of Bacillus spores using peptide-functionalized gold nanorods


Bionanotechnology, nanorods, nonlinear optics, pathogen detection, peptides


Bacillus subtilis spores (a simulant of Bacillus anthracis) have been imaged by two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy, using gold nanorods (GNRs) functionalized with a cysteine-terminated homing peptide. Control experiments using a peptide with a scrambled amino acid sequence confi rmed that the GNR targeting was highly selective for the spore surfaces. The high sensitivity of TPL combined with the high affi nity of the peptide labels enables spores to be detected with high fi delity using GNRs at femtomolar concentrations. It was also determined that GNRs are capable of signifi cant TPL output even when irradiated at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths far from their longitudinal plasmon resonance (LPR), permitting considerable fl exibility in the choice of GNR aspect ratio or excitation wavelength for TPL imaging.

Graphical Abstract


Tsinghua University Press