Journal of Neurorestoratology

Article Title

Why is olfactory neuroepithelium?


olfactory neuroepithelium, olfactory ensheathing cells, olfactory neurons, neurorestoration


Currently, most cellular therapeutic effects for nervous diseases cannot be proven in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-control clinical trials, except for a few kinds of cells such as olfactory ensheathing cells. These cells show significant improvements in functional recovery and quality of life for patients with chronic ischemic stroke. Also, olfactory neuron transplantation has promising neurorestorative effects on patients with vascular dementia. Human olfactory neuroepithelium can spontaneously and sustainably regenerate or produce new olfactory neurons and glial cell types for decades or a lifetime. The neurorestorative mechanisms of olfactory ensheathing cells are well known; however, little is known about the neurorestorative mechanisms of olfactory neurons. Therefore, I hypothesize that the neurorestorative mechanisms of olfactory neurons after transplantation: (1) can well migrate where they are needed and become local functional neurons, as they need to compensate or replace; (2) must be regulated by some special molecular factors to elongate their axons, modulate or direct synapses to correctly recognize and connect the target cells, and integrate functions. Based on olfactory neuroepithelium cells displaying the special characterization, neurorestorative mechanisms, clinical therapeutic achievements, and hypotheses of effective mechanisms, they (olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory neurons) may be the most efficient instruments of neurorestoration.