Journal of Neurorestoratology


cell therapy, mature/functional cells, neurorestoration, olfactory ensheathing cells, stem cell-derived cell therapy product


Clinical cell therapies (CTs) for neurological diseases and cellular damage have been explored for more than 2 decades. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration, there are 2 types of cell categories for therapy, namely stem cell-derived CT products and mature/functionally differentiated cell-derived CT products. However, regardless of the type of CT used, the majority of reports of clinical CTs from either small sample sizes based on single-center phase 1 or 2 unblinded trials or retrospective clinical studies showed effects on neurological improvement and the ability to either partially or temporarily thwart the deteriorating cellular processes of the neurodegenerative diseases. There have been only a few prospective, multicenter, randomized, double- blind placebo-control clinical trials of CTs so far in this developing novel area that have shown negative results, and more clinical trials are needed. This will expand our knowledge in exploring the type of cells that yield promising results and restore damaged neurological structure and functions of the central nervous system based on higher level evidence-based medical data. In this review, we briefly introduce the developmental process, current state, and future prospective for clinical neurorestorative CT.


Tsinghua University Press