Journal of Advanced Ceramics


pigment, complex polymerization method (CPM), fractional factorial design


Synthetic inorganic pigments are most widely used in ceramic applications due to their excellent chemical and thermal stability and their lower toxicity to both human and environment as well. In the present work, black ceramic pigment CoFe2O4 has been synthesized by the complex polymerization method (CPM) with good chemical homogeneity. In order to study the influence of variables on the process of obtaining pigment through CPM, 2(5-2) fractional factorial design with resolution III was used. The variables studied in the mathematical modeling were: citric acid/metal concentration, pre-calcination time, calcination temperature, calcination time, and calcination rate. Powder pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. Based on the results, the formation of cobalt ferrite phase (CoFe2O4) with spinel structure was verified. The color of pigments obtained showed dark shades, from black to gray. The model adjusted to the conditions proposed in this study due to the determination coefficient of 99.9% and variance (R²) showed that all factors are significant at the confidence level of 95%.


Tsinghua University Press