Journal of Advanced Ceramics


piezoelectric composite, piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG), porous structure, PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3PZT, PZT/PVDF electrospinning fibers, flexible self-powered devices


Piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) that can harvest mechanical energy from ambient environment have broad prospects for multi-functional applications. Here, multi-layered piezoelectric composites with a porous structure based on highly oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/PVDF (PZT/PVDF) electrospinning fibers are prepared via a laminating method to construct high-performance PENGs. PZT particles as piezoelectric reinforcing phases are embedded in PVDF fibers and facilitate the formation of polar β phase in PVDF. The multi-layered, porous structure effectively promotes the overall polarization and surface bound charge density, resulting in a highly efficient electromechanical conversion. The PENG based on 10 wt% PZT/PVDF composite fibers with a 220 µm film thickness outputs an optimal voltage of 62.0 V and a power of 136.9 μW, which are 3.4 and 6.5 times those of 10 wt% PZT/PVDF casting film-based PENG, respectively. Importantly, the PENG shows a high sensitivity of 12.4 V·N-1, presenting a significant advantage in comparison to PENGs with other porous structures. In addition, the composites show excellent flexibility with a Young’s modulus of 227.2 MPa and an elongation of 262.3%. This study shows a great potential application of piezoelectric fiber composites in flexible energy harvesting devices.