Journal of Advanced Ceramics


ceramics, spinel, composition modulation, dielectric properties


AB2O4-type spinels with low relative permittivity (εr) and high quality factor (Q × f) are crucial to high-speed signal propagation systems. In this work, Zn2+/Ge4+ co-doping to substitute Ga3+ in ZnGa2O4 was designed to lower the sintering temperature and adjust the thermal stability of resonance frequency simultaneously. Zn1+xGa2-2xGexO4 (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) ceramics were synthesised by the conventional solid-state method. Zn2+/Ge4+ co-substitution induced minimal variation in the macroscopical spinel structure, which effectively lowered the sintering temperature from 1385 to 1250 ℃. All compositions crystallized in a normal spinel structure and exhibited dense microstructures and excellent microwave dielectric properties. The compositional dependent quality factor was related to the microstructural variation, being confirmed by Raman features. A composition with x = 0.3 shows the best dielectric properties with εr ≈ 10.09, Q × f ≈ 112,700 THz, and τf ≈ -75.6 ppm/℃. The negative τf value was further adjusted to be near-zero through the formation of composite ceramics with TiO2.