Journal of Advanced Ceramics


(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3, lead-free piezoelectric, single crystal, microstructure, electrical properties


Ceramics based on (Na1/2B1/2)TiO3 are promising candidates for actuator applications because of large strains generated by an electric field-induced phase transition. For example, the (1-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-xSrTiO3 system exhibits a morphotropic phase boundary at x = 0.2-0.3, leading to high values of inverse piezoelectric constant d*33, which can be further improved by the use of single crystals. In our previous work, single crystals of (Na1/2B1/2)TiO3-SrTiO3 and (Na1/2B1/2)TiO3- CaTiO3 were grown by the solid state crystal growth technique. Growth in the (Na1/2B1/2)TiO3-SrTiO3 system was sluggish whereas the (Na1/2B1/2)TiO3-CaTiO3 single crystals grew well. In the present work, 0.8(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.2(Sr1-xCax)TiO3 single crystals (with x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were produced by the solid state crystal growth technique in an attempt to improve crystal growth rate. The dependence of mean matrix grain size, single crystal growth distance, and electrical properties on the Ca concentration was investigated in detail. These investigations indicated that at x = 0.3 the matrix grain growth was suppressed and the driving force for single crystal growth was enhanced. Replacing Sr with Ca increased the shoulder temperature Ts and temperature of maximum relative permittivity Tmax, causing a decrease in inverse piezoelectric properties and a change from normal to incipient ferroelectric behavior.