Journal of Advanced Ceramics


ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), (Zr,Hf,Ti)C, oxidation behavior, oxidation resistance, free-pressureless spark plasma sintering


Multi-component solid solutions with non-stoichiometric compositions are characteristics of ultra-high temperature carbides as promising materials for hypersonic vehicles. However, for group IV transition-metal carbides, the oxidation behavior of multi-component non-stoichiometric (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx carbide solid solution has not been clarified yet. The present work fabricated four kinds of (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx carbide solid solution powders by free-pressureless spark plasma sintering to investigate the oxidation behavior of (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx in air. The effects of metallic atom composition on oxidation resistance were examined. The results indicate that the oxidation kinetics of (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx are composition dependent. A high Hf content in (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx was beneficial to form an amorphous Zr-Hf-Ti-C-O oxycarbide layer as an oxygen barrier to enhance the initial oxidation resistance. Meanwhile, an equiatomic ratio of metallic atoms reduced the growth rate of (Zr,Hf,Ti)O2 oxide, increasing its phase stability at high temperatures, which improved the oxidation activation energy of (Zr,Hf,Ti)Cx.