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Friction

Keywords

adhesion, plasticity, wear, Archard’s law of wear, Rabinowicz criterion, wear particle emission, surface topography, boundary element method (BEM)

Abstract

In 1953 Archard formulated his general law of wear stating that the amount of worn material is proportional to the normal force and the sliding distance, and is inversely proportional to the hardness of the material. Five years later in 1958, Rabinowicz suggested a criterion determining the minimum size of wear particles. Both concepts became very popular due to their simplicity and robustness, but did not give thorough explanation of the mechanisms involved. It wasn’t until almost 60 years later in 2016 that Aghababaei, Warner and Molinari (AWM) used quasi-molecular simulations to confirm the Rabinowicz criterion. One of the central quantities remained the “asperity size”. Because real surfaces have roughness on many length scales, this size is often ill-defined. The present paper is devoted to two main points: First, we generalize the Rabinowicz-AWM criterion by introducing an “asperity-free” wear criterion, applicable even to fractal roughness. Second, we combine our generalized Rabinowicz criterion with the numerical contact mechanics of rough surfaces and formulate on this basis a deterministic wear model. We identify two types of wear: one leading to the formation of a modified topography which does not wear further and one showing continuously proceeding wear. In the latter case we observe regimes of least wear, mild wear and severe wear which have a clear microscopic interpretation. The worn volume in the region of mild wear occurs typically to be a power law of the normal force with an exponent not necessarily equal to one. The method provides the worn surface topography after an initial settling phase as well as the size distribution of wear particles. We analyse different laws of interface interaction and the corresponding wear laws. A comprehensive parameter study remains a task for future research.

Publisher

Tsinghua University Press

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