elevated temperature; hot forming; oxidation; tribometer; tribology


The tribo-characteristics of metal forming at high temperatures have not yet been well understood due to the complex nature of thermal, microstructural, interaction, and process parameters. This is a review paper on the effects of temperature, coating, and lubrication to the tribological characteristics in hot forming as well as the tribometers for different metal forming processes at elevated temperatures mainly based on the experimental work. The tribological behaviors of oxides in hot forming, such as rolling and stamping, were reviewed and presented. Some commonly used surface coatings and lubricants in hot forming were given. Many types of tribometer were selected and presented and some of them provided a great potential to characterize friction and wear at elevated temperatures. Nevertheless, more testing conditions should be further investigated by developing new tribometers. Eventually, experimental results obtained from reliable tribometers could be used in theory and model developments for different forming processes and materials at high temperatures. The review also showed the great potential in further investigations and innovation in tribology.


Tsinghua University Press