friction, nanomaterials, two-dimensional materials, nanotubes, nanoparticles, energy dissipation
When material dimensions are reduced to the nanoscale, exceptional physical mechanics properties can be obtained that differ significantly from the corresponding bulk materials. Here we review the physical mechanics of the friction of low-dimensional nanomaterials, including zero-dimensional nanoparticles, one- dimensional multiwalled nanotubes and nanowires, and two-dimensional nanomaterials—such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and transition-metal dichalcogenides—as well as topological insulators. Nanoparticles between solid surfaces can serve as rolling and sliding lubrication, while the interlayer friction of multiwalled nanotubes can be ultralow or significantly high and sensitive to interwall spacing and chirality matching, as well as the tube materials. The interwall friction can be several orders of magnitude higher in binary polarized h-BN tubes than in carbon nanotubes mainly because of wall buckling. Furthermore, current extensive studies on two-dimensional nanomaterials are comprehensively reviewed herein. In contrast to their bulk materials that serve as traditional dry lubricants (e.g., graphite, bulk h-BN, and MoS2), large-area high- quality monolayered two-dimensional nanomaterials can serve as single-atom-thick coatings that minimize friction and wear. In addition, by appropriately tuning the surface properties, these materials have shown great promise for creating energy-efficient self-powered electro-opto-magneto-mechanical nanosystems. State-of-the- art experimental and theoretical methods to characterize friction in nanomaterials are also introduced.
Tsinghua University Press
Wanlin GUO, Jun YIN, Hu QIU et al. Friction of low-dimensional nanomaterial systems. Friction 2014, 2(3): 209-225.