visco-mechanochemical interactive friction model, complex loading conditions, transient tribological behaviours, two-phase lubricant


The transient tribological phenomenon and premature lubricant breakdown have been widely observed in metal forming, leading to excessive friction at the contact interfaces. In this research, the transient tribological behaviour of a two-phase lubricant were studied under complex loading conditions, featuring abrupt interfacial temperature, contact load, and sliding speed changes, thus representing the severe interfacial conditions observed in warm/hot metal forming applications. The strong experimental evidence indicates that the evolution of friction was attributed to the physical diminution and chemical decomposition effects. As such, a visco-mechanochemical interactive friction model was developed to accurately predict the transient tribological behaviour of the two-phase lubricant under complex loading conditions. The new friction model exhibited close agreements between the modelling and experimental results.

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