galling, load change, interactive friction model, metal forming, AA6082 aluminium alloy


The galling process remains one of the least understood phenomena in metal forming. The transfer of material from a work-piece onto the tool surface can cause an evolutionary increase in friction coefficient (COF) and thus the use of a constant COF in finite element (FE) simulations leads to progressively inaccurate results. For an aluminium work-piece, material transfer, which has history and pressure dependency, is determined by a dynamic balance between the generation and ejection of wear particles acting as a 'third body’ abrasive element at the contact interface. To address this dynamic interactive phenomenon, pin-on-disc tests between AA6082 and G3500 were performed under step load change conditions. The COF evolutions, morphologies of the transfer layer and its cross-section were studied. It has been found that contact load change will disequilibrate and rebuild the dynamic balance and high load will increase the generation and ejection rate of third body and vice versa. Moreover, based on the experimental results, an interactive model was developed and presented to simulate the dynamic formation process of the aluminium third body layer under load change conditions, enabling multi-cycle simulations to model the galling distribution and friction variation.

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