chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), CMP model, planarization mechanism, wafer–pad interaction, uniformity


For several decades, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been the most widely used planarization method in integrated circuits manufacturing. The final polishing results are affected by many factors related to the carrier structure, the polishing pad, the slurry, and the process parameters. As both chemical and mechanical actions affect the effectiveness of CMP, and these actions are themselves affected by many factors, the CMP mechanism is complex and has been a hot research area for many years. This review provides a basic description of the development, challenges, and key technologies associated with CMP. We summarize theoretical CMP models from the perspectives of kinematics, empirical, its mechanism (from the viewpoint of the atomic scale, particle scale, and wafer scale), and its chemical–mechanical synergy. Experimental approaches to the CMP mechanism of material removal and planarization are further discussed from the viewpoint of the particle wear effect, chemical–mechanical synergy, and wafer–pad interfacial interaction.


Tsinghua University Press