Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), defects, scratch, post-CMP cleaning, defect source
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has become one of the most critical processes in semiconductor device fabrication to achieve global planarization. To achieve an efficient global planarization for device node dimensions of less than 32 nm, a comprehensive understanding of the physical, chemical, and tribo-mechanical/chemical action at the interface between the pad and wafer in the presence of a slurry medium is essential. During the CMP process, some issues such as film delamination, scratching, dishing, erosion, and corrosion can generate defects which can adversely affect the yield and reliability. In this article, an overview of material removal mechanism of CMP process, investigation of the scratch formation behavior based on polishing process conditions and consumables, scratch formation mechanism and the scratch inspection tools were extensively reviewed. The advantages of adopting the filtration unit and the jet spraying of water to reduce the scratch formation have been reviewed. The current research trends in the scratch formation, based on modeling perspective were also discussed.
Tsinghua University Press
Tae-Young KWON, Manivannan RAMACHANDRAN, Jin-Goo PARK. Scratch formation and its mechanism in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). Friction 2013, 1(4): 279-305.