Building Simulation: An International Journal

Article Title

External shading optimal control macros for 1- and 2-piece automated blinds in European climates


solar shading, control algorithm, energy efficiency, cooling load, facades, offices


Dynamic external shading is considered an effective measure for improving energy performance and decreasing cooling loads. Optimal control principle is needed to minimize energy use and maximize occupants’ satisfaction. We developed and described in detail optimal control macros in software IDA ICE 4.5 and simulated office building energy performances with varying facade solutions and climates over Europe. Primary energy savings between 1 and 32 kWh/m2 were reached. Shading control to avoid glare during office hours and overheating outside work time was recommended in Tallinn and Paris. In addition shading adjustment according to room temperature during work time was necessary in Athens to minimize energy use. Also suntracking could be used in Tallinn and Paris, but PI-controllers for slat angle control were needed in Athens. Cooling load comparison of internal and external shading showed significant reduction in space cooling capacities ranging between 40% and 70%, whereas design date selection influenced cooling system design considerably besides facade solutions and orientations. Developed control macros are proposed for testing in other studies in order to find optimal control principles satisfying office workers which then could be generally implemented in design guidelines and manuals.


Tsinghua University Press