Building Simulation: An International Journal

Article Title

Optimization of indoor environmental quality and ventilation load in office space by multilevel coupling of building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics


integrated simulation, BES, CFD, CO2 demand control, indoor environmental quality, energy recovery ventilator


The fundamentals, implementation, and application of an integrated simulation as an approach for predicting the indoor environmental quality for an open-type office and for quantifying energy saving potential under optimized ventilation are presented in this paper. An integrated simulation procedure based on a building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics, incorporated with a conceptual model of a CO2 demand controlled ventilation (DCV) system and proportional integral control of an air conditioning system as the optimization assessment of conceptual model in the occupied zone, was developed. This numerical model quantitatively exhibits energy conservation and represents the non-uniform distribution patterns of airflow properties and CO2 concentration levels in terms of energy recovery and indoor thermal comfort. By means of an integrated simulation, the long-term energy consumption of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are predicted precisely and dynamically. Relative to a ventilation system with a basic constant air volume supply rate characterized by a fixed outdoor air intake rate from the ceiling supply opening, the optimized CO2-DCV system coupled with energy recovery ventilators reduced total energy consumption by 29.1% (in summer conditions) and 40.9% (winter).


Tsinghua University Press