Building Simulation: An International Journal

Article Title

Opportunities for reversible chillers in office buildings in Europe


chiller, heat pump, reversibility, office building, energy consumption, energy savings


Europe with more than 600 millions of square meters of air-conditioned office buildings offers an opportunity to save energy and reduce CO2 emissions by reconverting chillers into reversible heat pumps in office buildings. One of the questions asked in the framework of the IEA ECBCS Annex 48 is how to assess the energy saving potential and how to identify the most interesting building cases. The methodology proposed here is based on the simulation of office buildings representative of the building stock. The energy consumption has been simulated for different office building types in five European climatic zones on the one hand with boilers for heating and chillers for cooling, and on the other hand with reversible chillers plus back-up boilers. The results of the simulations in terms of energy consumption allow us to assess the primary energy savings and CO2 emission reduction in Europe by reconverting chillers into reversible heat pumps. The results show that the potential of annual primary energy savings and annual CO2 emission reduction are about 8 TWhPE and 3 millions of tons of CO2 in Europe-15. Even if the temperature level in terminal units can be solved using the cooling coil instead of the heating coil, a back up boiler turns generally out to be required for the coldest days in the year or when simultaneous heating and cooling demands occur.


Tsinghua University Press