Building Simulation: An International Journal

Article Title

Simulating dispatchable grid services provided by flexible building loads: State of the art and needed building energy modeling improvements


building energy modeling grid-interactive efficient buildings, demand response, load flexibility, thermostatically controlled loads, reduced order models, heating ventilation and air conditioning


End-use electrical loads in residential and commercial buildings are evolving into flexible and cost-effective resources to improve electric grid reliability, reduce costs, and support increased hosting of distributed renewable generation. This article reviews the simulation of utility services delivered by buildings for the purpose of electric grid operational modeling. We consider services delivered to (1) the high-voltage bulk power system through the coordinated action of many, distributed building loads working together, and (2) targeted support provided to the operation of low-voltage electric distribution grids. Although an exhaustive exploration is not possible, we emphasize the ancillary services and voltage management buildings can provide and summarize the gaps in our ability to simulate them with traditional building energy modeling (BEM) tools, suggesting pathways for future research and development.


Tsinghua University Press